東京慈恵医科大学医学部(2003年度・改)

  The genetic material of human beings, our DNA, differs(1 )

 the genetic material of chimpanzees, their DNA, by a little
 over 1 per cent. In the 1990s, this became a scientific cl-
 -iche,(2 )Albert Einstein's equation E=mc2, familiar (3 )m-
 -any people but understood by few. It is usually expressed
 alomg the lines of 'people are only 1 per cent human and 99
 per cent ape'. The truth, though, is that we are 100 per c-
 -ent ape - not a separate species in our own right, but a s-
 -ibling species to the hairy apes, the chimpanzee and goril-
 -la. (A)People, in fact, are more closely related to chimpa-
 -nzees (in terms of their DNA) than the horseis to the zebra.
 
 問1 空所(1 )~(3 )にいれるのに適当な語を下から1つ
      ずつ選び、解答欄に書きなさい。
 
  after   before   from   like   on   to
 
 問2 (A)以降の文を日本語に訳しなさい。
 
    出典:東京慈恵会医科大学2003年度〈改)
 
 
   
 

 解答

 問1 1.from  2.like  3.to

 順天堂大学医学部(2008年度・改)

  Scientists have long believed that there is a link between

 body fitness and mental conditoin. The idea of the "scholar-

 -athlete" goes back to the culture of the ancient Greeka, in

 which "fitness was almost as important as learning itself",

 says Harvard University psychistrist John Ratey. The Greeks,

 he adds, understood the "mind-body connection" and probably

 intuited the basic principle that aerobic execise helps the

 heart pump more blood to the brain, along with the rest of

 the body.More blood means more oxygen, and thus betternouri-

 -shed brain cells. "Exercise can affect cognition, just as it

 affects muscles", says Charles Hillman.
   Recently, however, researchers using sophisticated brain-
 scanning tools and the latest biochemical theories have come
 to realize that the mental effects of exericise are far more
 profound and complex than they once thought.The process starts
 in the muscles. Every time a muscle contracts and releases, it
 sends out chemicals, including a protein called IGF-1 that tr-
 -avels through the bloodstream, across the blood-brain barrier
 and into the brain itself.There, IGF-1 takes on the role of m-
 -anager in the body's neurotransmitter factory. It issues ord-
 -ers to increase production of several chemicals, including one
  called BDNF.
   With regular execise, the body builds up its levels of BDNF,
 and the brain's nerve cells start to branch out, join together
 and communicate with each other in new ways. This is the proc-
 -ess that underlies learning; every change in the junctions
 between brain cell signifies a new fact or skill that's been
 picked up and stowed away for future use, BDNF makes that proc-
 -ess possible. Brains with more of it have a greater capacity
 for knowledge. On the other hand, a brain that's low on BDNF
 shuts itself off to new information.
               
 
 問1 The word underlies in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning
       to ........... .
     1, is supporting
     2, is the basis of
     3, is below
     4, is inferior to
 
 
  
 
 

 解答

 2